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    Re: Mold Prevention - MicroShield Environmental Services

    Posted by TJB on 9/23/05

    MicroShield ES (with microban qgc)

    MICROBAN’s Active Ingredient is “Triclosan”

    There is mounting evidence that “Triclosan” is potentially dangerous to human health and the

    Builders would be crazy to apply triclosan to the frames of residential homes by using Microshield

    The following excerpts are from a recent report on triclosan.

    Body Absorption.
    A Swedish study found high levels triclosan in three out of five human milk samples, indicating
    that triclosan does in fact get absorbed into the body, often in high quantities.24 Additionally,
    triclosan is lipophilic, so it can bioaccumulate in fatty tissues. Concerns over triclosan
    interfering with the body’s thyroid hormone metabolism led to a study that found that triclosan
    had a marked hypothermic effect, lowering the body temperature, and overall causing a “nonspecific
    depressant effect on the central nervous system” of mice.25 Although the chemical structure of
    triclosan closely resembles certain estrogens, a study on a Japanese species o fish did not
    demonstrate estrogenic e. ects.26 However, it did find that triclosan is weakly androgenic,
    causing changes in fin length and sex ratios.27

    Dioxin Link.
    Recently, there have been a number of concerns about triclosan and its link to dioxin. Dioxin can
    be highly carcinogenic and can cause health problems as severe as weakening of the immune system,
    decreased fertility, altered sex hormones, miscarriage, birth defects, and cancer.32 Triclosan is
    listed as “could be” and “suspected to be” contaminated with dioxins in EPA’s draft. Dioxin
    Reassessment.33 Because of the chemical structure as a polychloro phenoxy phenol, it is possible
    that dioxin can be found in triclosan as synthesis impurities.34 In addition to being formed
    during the manufacturing process, dioxin may also be formed upon incineration of triclosan.35
    Researchers who added triclosan to river water and shined ultraviolet light on the water found
    that between one and twelve percent of the triclosan was converted to dioxin in the water, leading
    to fears that sunlight could transform triclosan to dioxin naturally.36 An even more serious
    health threat may stem from treatment of triclosan-tainted water at water treatment plants—
    sunlight could convert chlorinated triclosan into highly toxic forms of dioxin.37 Exposure to
    sunlight in the solid state of triclosan, such as on commercial textile products, also causes
    formation of dioxin, albeit in smaller amounts than aqueous solutions.38

    Resistance Concerns.
    A number of recent studies have raised serious concerns that triclosan and other similar products
    may promote the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.39 One concern is that bacteria
    will become resistant to antibacterial products like triclosan, rendering the products useless to
    those who actually need them, such as people with compromised immune systems. Scientists also
    worry that because triclosan’s mode of action and target site in the bacteria is similar to
    antibiotics, bacteria that become resistant to triclosan will also become resistant to
    antibiotics. There are also at least two other proven resistance mechanisms that are similar for
    both triclosan and antibiotics.40 Triclosan does not actually cause a mutation in the bacteria,
    but by killing the normal bacteria, it creates an environment where mutated bacteria that are
    resistant to triclosan are more likely to survive and reproduce.41 With so many products on the
    market containing triclosan, the speed with which resistance develops is likely to be increased.42
    Laboratory studies with triclosan have found a number of different strains of mutated bacteria
    that are resistant to triclosan.43 These studies found that these mutant strains
    of bacteria also showed resistance to certain antibiotics, including a drug widely used for
    treatment of tuberculosis, an experimental antibiotic currently under development, and a number of
    other “clinically relevant” antibiotics.44 While most resistant bacteria grow more slowly than
    sensitive bacteria, E. coli strains that are resistant to triclosan actually have increased growth
    rates. Constant exposure to triclosan will cause these resistant strains to tolerate it better,
    become increasingly hardy, and ever more resistant.45 Because antibiotic resistance has become an
    increasingly serious problem worldwide, the link to antibacterials may prove to be very
    important.46 In a recent review of the subject, one researcher concluded, “It is therefore quite
    possible that widespread use of triclosan may indeed compound antibiotic resistance.”47

    Allergy Link.
    Another potential problem with overuse of triclosan is the link to allergies. The “hygiene
    hypothesis,” theorizes that there is a correlation between too much hygiene and increased
    allergies and asthma.28 This hypothesis is based on studies that have found an increase in the
    frequency of allergies, asthma, and eczema in persons who have been raised in more sterile and
    hygienic environments. Through over-cleaning ourselves, the theory states, the body’s immune
    system is not challenged, and thus prevent it is prevented from developing
    and maturing.29 In one study, children who grew up on farms had fewer allergies than did their
    counterparts who did not live on farms.30 In another study, researchers found that respiratory
    allergies were less frequent in people who were heavily exposed to microbes, leading the
    researchers to conclude that, “Hygiene and a westernised, semisterile diet may facilitate atopy by
    influencing the overall pattern of commensals and pathogens…thus contributing to the epidemic of
    allergic asthma and rhinitis in developed countries.”31

    Environmental Effects
    Over 95% of the uses of triclosan are in consumer products that are disposed of in residential
    drains.48 Since wastewater treatment plants fail to remove triclosan from the water and
    the compound is highly stable for long periods of time,49 a huge amount of triclosan is expected
    to be emitted into waterways. In a U.S. Geological Survey study of 95 different organic wastewater
    contaminants in U.S. streams, triclosan was one of the most frequently detected compounds, and in
    some of the highest concentrations.50 A study of triclosan in bodies of water in Switzerland also
    found high concentrations of the chemical in several lakes and rivers, as well as lower levels of
    methyl triclosan, its breakdown by-product.51 Methyl triclosan, which is formed by a process
    called biological methylation, is actually more lipophilic than its parent compound, and thus more
    bioaccumulative.52 Triclosan can have detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems. It has been found
    to be highly toxic to different types of algae.53 Triclosan effluents affect both the structure
    and the function of algal communities in stream ecosystems.54 Because algae are the first-step
    producers in aquatic ecosystems, high levels of triclosan discharged into the environment may
    cause possible destruction of the balance of aquatic ecosystems.55 The risks are especially high
    immediately downstream from wastewater treatment plants.56 Because of its lipophilic nature and
    resistance to degradation, triclosan in waterways is readily available for absorption and
    bioaccumulation by aquatic organisms in the environment.57 Researchers in Sweden found high levels
    of triclosan present in the bile of fish that were placed in cages downstream of sewage treatment
    works in Sweden.58 Methyl triclosan has also been found in fish.59 Although little is
    known about the effects on fish, triclosan has been found to be highly toxic to Japanese medaka
    fish in their early life stages, and may be a weak endocrine disruptor. 60

    Regulatory Issues.
    In 1997, the EPA acted to prevent the manufacturer of Playskool toys, Hasbro, Inc. (which sells
    toys made with Microban® plastic containing triclosan), from making false claims about
    protecting children from infectious diseases caused by bacteria because it did not prove efficacy
    to EPA. Labels and advertisements for the toys suggested that the treatment protects children from
    health risks, when in fact it protects only the plastic in the toy. The company is prevented from
    making such claims due to a lack of reliable data to support them.
    Under the agreement, Hasbro had to publish large advertisements in certain newspapers and
    magazines about misrepresentation of the public health claim.63 Overall, the FDA and the EPA have
    done little to warn consumers of the possible health and environmental effects of triclosan.
    European countries, by contrast, have taken a much different approach to this chemical. In 2000,
    the Danish EPA, National Board of Health, National Central Laboratory and the Danish Consumer
    Information Center issued a joint statement advising consumers against the routine use of
    antibacterial household and personal hygiene products, stating that their use is unnecessary for
    domestic use and potentially harmful to the environment as they “are extremely persistent and
    highly toxic in the marine environment.”64 Six Finnish public authorities also issued a statement
    urging consumers to not use certain anti-bacterial chemicals, stating they are unnecessary and
    that their growing use increases the risk of spreading antibiotic resistance in microbial
    populations. The joint statement, also issued in 2000, stated, “Even Finnish hospitals don’t use
    such chemicals for routine cleaning operations. In households we see more disadvantages than
    advantages.” 65 That same year, soap and detergent manufacturers in Europe agreed to a ban on any
    increase in its use over 1998 levels.66

    1 FDA. 2001. Glossary of Pesticide Chemicals. gov/~acrobat/pestglos.pdf> (Accessed July 26, 2004).
    2 American Medical Association. 2000. Use of Antimicrobials in Consumer
    Products. Report 2 of the Council on Scienti. c A. airs (A-00).
    3 Lurie, Z. 2004. Engaging in germ warfare. Journal Gaze. e.> (Accessed 8/2/04).;
    SLACK, Inc. 2000. Overuse of triclosan may be creating resistant bacteria.
    Infectious Disease News.
    4 Levy, S. B. 2001. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(3, Supplement): 512-515.
    5 Ref. #2.
    6 FSNET. 2000. Survey of U.S. Stores reveals widespread availability of
    soaps containing potentially harmful antibacterial agents. Centre for Safe
    Food, University of Guelph. September 10. fsnet/2000/9-2000/fs-09-10-00-01.txt> (Accessed 8/26/04). Of that half, a
    small amount contained triclocarban instead of triclosan. Triclocarban is
    an analogue of triclosan.
    7 Adolfsson-Erici, M., M. Pe. ersson, J. Parkkonen, and J. Sturve. 2002.
    Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the
    aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46:1485-1489.
    environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46:1485-1489.
    8 U.S. EPA, O. ce of Preventions, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. 2003.
    Chapter 2: What is a pesticide? Label Review Manual. 3rd ed. Washington,
    DC. (Accessed
    October 18, 2004).
    9 Simpson, W. M., Jr. (Ed.). 2004. From the Literature. Agromedicine Program
    Update 16(8), August 15.
    (Accessed October 18, 2004).
    10 McMurry, L. M., M. Oethinger, and S. B. Levy. 1998. Triclosan targets
    lipid synthesis. Nature 394: 531-532.; Levy, C. W., A. Roujeinikovai,, S.
    Sedelnikova, P. J. Baker, et al. 1999. Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity.
    Nature, 398: 383-384.
    11 Levy et. al 1999 (Ref. #10); Ref. #6.
    12 Levy, et al. 1999. (Ref #10)
    13 Levy, S. B. 2002. Antimicrobial Consumer Products. Archives of Dermatology
    14 Ref #4.
    15 Larson, E. L., S. X. Lin, C. Gomez-Pichardo, and P. Della-La. a. 2004.
    E. ect of anti-bacterial home cleaning and handwashing products on
    infectious disease symptoms: a randomized, double-blind trial. Annals
    of Internal Medicine 140:321-329.
    16 Ref. #3.
    Pesticides and You
    Beyond Pesticides/National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides
    Page 16 Vol. 24, No. 3, 2004
    17 Bhargava, H.N., and P.A. Leonard. 1996. Triclosan: applications and
    safety. Am J Infect Control 24(3): 209-18.
    18 Ref. #19; Strer E, K.J. Koh, and L. Warren. 2004. Severe contact dermatitis
    as a result of an antiseptic bath oil. Australasian Journal of Dermatology
    45(1): 73-75.; Triclosan: Allergic contact dermatitis following occupational
    exposure: case report. Reactions 1(894): 11; Wong, C.M, and M.
    H. Beck. 2001. Allergic contact dermatitis from triclosan in antibacterial
    handwashes. Contact Dermatitis 45(5): 307; Perrenoud D. et al. 1994. Frequency
    of sensitization to common preservatives in Switzerland. Contact
    Dermatitis 30: 276-279.
    19 Durbize E., M. Vigan, E. Puzenat, et al. 2003. Spectrum of cross-photosensitization
    in 18 consecutive patients with contact photoallergy to
    ketoprofen: associated photoallergies to non-benzophenone-containing
    microbes. Contact Dermatitis 48(3): 144-149; Haz-Map> (Accessed 7/27/04)
    20 Haz-Map (Ref #19).
    21 Sta. ord, J. 5 May 1997. Germ Warfare. Voices, Health and Fiction.
    22 Triclosan. Material Safety Data Sheet, CNCCC.
    23 Ref. #17.
    24 Ref. #7.
    25 Miller, T.L., Lorusso D. J., Walsh M. L., and M. L. Deinzer. 1983. The
    acute toxicity of penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorohydroxydiphenyl ethers in
    mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 12 (2-3):245-53.
    26 Foran C.M, E. R. Benne. , and W. H. Benson. 2000. Developmental
    evaluation of a potential non-steroidal estrogen: triclosan. Marine Environmental
    Research 50:153-156.
    27 Ibid.
    28 Strachan D.P. 1989. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ
    299:1259-1260; Rook G.W., Stanford J.L. 1998. Give us this day our daily
    germs. Immunology Today 19:113-6.
    29 Ref. #4.
    30 Braun-Fahrlander C.H., M. Gassner, L. Grize, U. Neu, et al. 1999. Prevalence
    of hay fever and allergic sensitization in farmer’s children and their
    peers living in the same rural community. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 28-34.
    31 Matricardi P.M., F. Rosmini, S. Riondino, M. Fortini, et al. 2000. Exposure
    to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses in relation to
    atopy and allergic asthma: epidemiological study. BMJ 320: 412-417.
    32 US Dept of Health and Human Services. 1998. Toxicological pro. le for
    chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic
    Substances and Disease Registry; US EPA. 1994. Estimating exposure to
    dioxin-like compounds, Vol. II: Properties, sources, occurrence and background
    exposures. O. ce of Research and Development. Review dra. .
    Washington DC, June.
    33 U.S. EPA. 1994. Estimating exposure to dioxin-like compounds, Vol.
    II: Properties, sources, occurrence and background exposures. O. ce of
    Research and Development. Review dra. . Washington DC, June. Pages
    34 Menoutis, J. and A. I. Parisi. 2001. Triclosan and its impurities. Triclosan
    Review Series, Quantex Laboratories, Inc. com/triclosan.htm> (Accessed July 26, 2004).
    35 Kanetoshi, A., H. Ogawa, E. Katsura, H. Kaneshima, and T. Miura. 1988.
    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins upon combustion of commercial
    textile products containing 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’hyroxydiphenyl ether
    (Irgasan® DP300). Journal of Chromatography A 442: 289-299.
    36 Latch, D.E., J.L. Packer, W..A. Arnolda, and K. McNeill. 2000. Photochemical
    conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous
    solution. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry
    37 BBC News. 2003. Fears over antibacterial ingredient. Published 4-15-03,
    BBC MMIV. < h. p:// >
    (Accessed 7/26/04).
    38 Kanetoshi A., H. Ogawa, E. Katsura, H. Kaneshima, and T. Miura. 1988.
    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin from 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’hyroxydiphenyl
    ether (Irgasan® DP300) and its chlorinated derivatives by
    exposure to sunlight. Journal of Chromatography A 454: 145-155.
    39 Heath, R., et al. 2000. Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPHdependent
    enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexchlorophene.
    J. Biol Chem. 275: 4654-59; Chuanchuen, R., K. Beinlich, T.T. hoang,
    A. Becher, et al. 2001. Cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics
    in Pseudomanas aeruginosa is mediated by multidrug e. ux pumps:
    exposure of a susceptible mutant strain to triclosan selects nfxB mutants
    overexpressing MexCD-OprJ. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
    45: 428-432.
    40 Ref. #2.; Chuanchuen, R. 2001 (Ref. #38).
    41 Ref. #6.
    42 Ref. #6.
    43 Ref. #4.
    44 Ref. #4.; Ref. #2.
    45 Stenson, J. September 30, 2002. Antibacterial products may fuel growth
    of superbugs. ReutersHealth.
    (Accessed 7/26/04).
    46 Ref. #4; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center
    for Infectious Diseases. 2004. Antimicrobial Resistance. < h. p://www.cdc.
    gov/drugresistance/ > (Accessed 8/25/04)
    47 Ref. #2.
    48 Reiss, R., N. Mackay, C. Habig, and J. Gri. n. 2002. An ecological risk
    assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater
    treatment plants in the United States. Environmental Toxicology
    and Chemistry 21(11): 2483-2492.
    49 Ref. #7; Ref. #48, Ref. #50, Ref. #51.
    50 Kolpin, D. W., E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E. M. Thurman et al. 2002.
    Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants
    in U. S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ. Sci. Technol.
    51 Lindstrom, A., I. J.Buerge, T. Poiger, P. Berqvist et al. 2002. Occurrence
    and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl
    derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environmental Science
    and Technology 36(11): 2322-2329.
    52 Ibid.
    53 Tatarazako, N., H. Ishibashi, K. Teshima, K. Kishi, and K. Arizono.
    2004. E. ects of triclosan on various aquatic organisms. Environmental
    Sciences 11(2):133-140.; Wilson, B.A.; Orvos, D.R., D.J. Versteeg, J. Inauen,
    M. Capdevielle, et al. 2002. Aquatic Toxicity of Triclosan. Environmental
    Toxicology and Chemistry 21(7): 1338-1349.
    54 Wilson, B.A., V.H. Smith, F. deNoyelles Jr., and C.K. Larive. 2003.
    E. ects of three pharmaceutical and personal care products on natural
    freshwater algal assemblages. Environmental Science and Technology
    55 Tatarazako et al, 2004. (Ref. #53.)
    56 Reiss, R., N. Mackay, C. Habig, and J. Gri. n. 2002. An ecological risk
    assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater
    treatment plants in the United States. Environmental Toxicology
    and Chemistry 21(11): 2483-2492.
    57 Ref. #7.
    58 Ibid.
    59 Balmer, M. E., T. Poiger, C. Droz, K. Romanin et al. 2004. Occurrence
    of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan,
    in . shfrom various lakes in Switzerland. Environmental Science and
    Technology 38:390-395.
    60 Ishibashi, H., N. Matsumura, M. Hirano, M. Matsuoka et al. 2004.
    E. ects of triclosan on the early life stages and reproduction of medake
    Oryzias latipes and induction of hepatic vitellogenin. Aquatic Toxicology
    61 McCourt, Joy. Triclosan: the birth of a> (Accessed 8/26/04).
    63 U.S. EPA. April 18 1997. EPA acts to prevent Playskool toy manufacturer
    Hasbro, Inc. from false claims about protecting children from microbial
    infections. Press Release. Washington, DC.
    64 Environment News Daily. 2000. Denmark discourages household
    antibacterials. ENDS Report 862: October 26.
    65 Environment News Daily. 2001. Finnish warning on anti-bacterial
    chemicals. ENDS Report 933: February 16.
    66 Environment News Daily. 2000. Toxicity fears limit triclosan use. ENDS
    Report 309: October 12-13.
    67 Environment News Daily. 2001. German appeal to limit anti-bacterial
    use. ENDS Report 957: March 22.

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